Direct IO, AIO and device file

Character devices

Character special files or character devices provide unbuffered, direct access to the hardware device. They do not necessarily allow programs to read or write single characters at a time; that is up to the device in question. The character device for a hard disk, for example, will normally require that all reads and writes are aligned to block boundaries and most certainly will not allow reading a single byte.

Character devices are sometimes known as raw devices to avoid the confusion surrounding the fact that a character device for a piece of block-based hardware will typically require programs to read and write aligned blocks.

Block devices

Block special files or block devices provide buffered access to hardware devices, and provide some abstraction from their specifics[7] Unlike character devices, block devices will always allow the programmer to read or write a block of any size (including single characters/bytes) and any alignment. The downside is that because block devices are buffered, the programmer does not know how long it will take before written data is passed from the kernel’s buffers to the actual device, or indeed in what order two separate writes will arrive at the physical device; additionally, if the same hardware exposes both character and block devices, there is a risk of data corruption due to clients using the character device being unaware of changes made in the buffers of the block device.

Most systems create both block and character devices to represent hardware like hard disks. FreeBSD and Linux notably do not; the former has removed support for block devices,[8] while the latter creates only block devices. In Linux, to get a character device for a disk one must use the “raw” driver, though one can get the same effect as opening a character device by opening the block device with the Linux-specific O_DIRECT flag.

You need to understand that O_DIRECT is about filesystem buffer cache and Async I/O is about being blocking/non-blocking.


Asynchronous I/O Support on OCFS/OCFS2 and Related Settings: filesystemio_options, disk_asynch_io (Doc ID 432854.1)
ASM Inherently Performs Asynchronous I/O Regardless of filesystemio_options Parameter (Doc ID 751463.1)
Differences between Veritas ODM, Directio and Buffered IO
How to know if direct I/O is being used



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